What Is Property Law, And How Is It Applied?

The right of property is the right to enjoy, dispose of, and claim property. The Spanish Constitution defines this right as the right to enjoy, dispose of, and claim property. However, the Constitution also implicitly imposes a series of obligations towards the general interest.

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What is property rights?

The right of property is a fundamental right that grants the owner direct power over certain assets. Even so, it must be taken into account that it is also subject to regulations: it must not affect the rights of others nor exceed the limits imposed by law.

In some cases, ownership may be owned by two or more people. In this case, what is understood as the right of co-ownership, private property, and collective property arises, as necessary in each case.

How is property acquired?

There are several ways to obtain a property, which are:

  • Through inheritance from a family member or close person.
  • By usucapion. This term means that if a property does not have an owner, whoever occupies it will become its owner.
  • Through the sale.
  • By donation.
  • Through a public auction.

Characteristics of property law

Specific characteristics of property law must be taken into account to understand and respect its operation:


Unlike other rights, the generality includes the totality of the use, services, or utilities of the thing that is owned, of course, always taking into account the exceptions established by law.


It is a right that allows property powers to be separated, establishing a difference between each of them.


Sometimes limitations can be established on properties, but when these disappear, the property regains its general character.


Since the law includes all the powers of property, it does not allow an outsider to intervene in it. Thus, through exclusivity, it is allowed to prevent others’ enjoyment of good.


The property is not subject to time limitations. It can last indefinitely through successive owners, who will inherit the right to the property.

Examples of tangible and intangible property law

Property is only sometimes tangible. While most properties are tangible, such as a car, a house, or land, there are also intangible properties. Some examples of the most well-known intangible properties could be the intellectual property of a book or the patent of a design.

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Important Concepts in Property Law

First, it is essential to know that natural rights exist. These are legal powers (there are several, including the fundamental right of mortgage and the basic right of usufruct) that a particular individual can hold over something. In real estate matters, acquiring or transferring absolute rights requires registering the property titles in the real estate registries in the corresponding area (jurisdiction).

When someone gains power over a right or asset (which can be natural or movable property) and carries out material actions that reveal their control or power over it, the concept of possession comes into play.

Within the universe of fundamental rights, the so-called domain is present at the same time. It occurs every time a unit is under the action or will of a human being. The domain is classified as perfect or complete if it is given in a lasting manner and the object or element in question has not been encumbered with property rights towards another person. To highlight: there are restrictions on the domain that mark limits and ways of proceeding, for example, when it is a horizontal property.…

What is the Horizontal and Vertical Property Law?

One can distinguish between vertical and horizontal ownership based on the distribution of property ownership. Vertical property is understood to be properties made up of several premises or homes that belong to a single property. On the contrary, the horizontal property law indicates that horizontal property is understood to be the form of co-ownership that exists between the different owners of a property divided into several floors.

The law of horizontal property and its rights

The horizontal property law includes the different rights that owners have over the property. Distinguish between:

The right of singular property

The singular and exclusive property right refers to the rights that each owner has over the elements of his exclusive property, such as the apartment itself, the parking space, or the storage rooms.

The right of joint property 

On the other hand, joint and inseparable property rights refer to the common elements of the property. They can be the staircase, the mailboxes, the community pool, or the elevator.

Horizontal property distribution

The horizontal property law works more or less like a company’s shares. All elements of the exclusive property, such as the apartment or the parking space, are assigned a percentage share of the total building. This percentage indicates the obligations that each of the owners will have over the common areas based on their total participation. In this way, both the contribution of each owner to the everyday expenses and the voting power in the owners’ meetings are established.

According to the horizontal property law, the property manager is in charge of carrying out all administrative functions, such as accounting, budgeting, and preparing the annual balance of expenses.

The vertical property

Unlike horizontal property, which is characterized by co-ownership, vertical property has a single owner to whom all the homes or premises belong. Usually, the owner makes the investment profitable by leasing the premises in different forms.

This does not mean that every vertical property has to be destined to obtain economic returns. A plot in an urbanization, for example, is not governed by the horizontal property law. The buyer of a villa, as the owner, must be responsible for the maintenance and tax obligations since they own 100% of the property.

Horizontal Ownership vs. Vertical Ownership

In vertical ownership, there is no differentiation between common areas and exclusive areas of each owner since there is only one owner.

Unlike in horizontal property law, where the property manager is responsible for administrative and maintenance tasks, in vertical property, the owner is in charge of maintaining the property’s condition and fulfilling financial obligations.

In a horizontal community, properties or premises are usually used primarily for housing. In contrast, vertical properties, such as museums, hotels, or shopping centers, are used for commercial, professional, recreational, or cultural purposes.

Additionally, property rights are essential to real estate transactions. Clear and enforceable property rights facilitate the buying, selling, and leasing of property, ensuring that all parties understand their rights and obligations. This clarity reduces disputes and fosters a stable property market.

In the context of land use, property rights are essential for urban planning and development. They provide a framework for balancing private ownership with the public interest, such as zoning laws and environmental regulations. By protecting individual property rights while accommodating community needs, societies can promote sustainable and equitable development.

Delving into the YNH Property Scandal: An In-Depth Analysis

Overview of the YNH Property Scandal

The YNH property scandal has captivated public attention due to its complexity and the high-profile individuals involved. The origins of the scandal can be traced back to early 2021 when allegations first surfaced regarding irregularities in the acquisition and management of several high-value properties. Initial reports indicated that several prominent business figures and politicians might have been involved in a series of questionable transactions.

As the investigation unfolded, it became evident that a network of individuals and organizations had potentially engaged in fraudulent activities. Key players in the scandal include executives from YNH Holdings, a major real estate conglomerate, and several government officials. These individuals are accused of leveraging their positions to manipulate property values, engage in money laundering, and evade regulatory oversight.

The timeline of events began with whistleblowers from within YNH Holdings who exposed internal documents suggesting financial misconduct. This prompted a series of audits and investigations by regulatory bodies, including the Financial Conduct Authority (FCA) and the National Crime Agency (NCA). Subpoenas were issued, and several high-ranking officials were placed under scrutiny, leading to a cascade of media coverage and public outcry.

Legal frameworks relevant to the YNH property scandal include anti-corruption laws, real estate regulations, and financial transparency statutes. The case has highlighted significant loopholes in existing regulations, prompting discussions about potential reforms. Public reaction to the scandal has been intense, with widespread demands for accountability and transparency. The media has played a crucial role in bringing the details of the scandal to light, ensuring that the involved parties are held to account.

This overview sets the stage for a detailed examination of the YNH property scandal, providing essential context and background information to understand the subsequent developments and implications.

Financial Impacts and Major Developments

The YNH property scandal has resulted in significant financial turmoil, profoundly affecting various facets of the real estate market. One of the immediate repercussions has been the sharp decline in property values in the affected regions. Investors, now wary of potential fraud and mismanagement, have withdrawn their investments, leading to a decrease in market liquidity and a stifling of new property development projects. This decline in market confidence is evident in the marked drop in property transactions and the hesitant behavior of potential buyers and investors.

Moreover, the scandal has led to substantial economic fallout. Real estate firms associated with YNH have seen their stock prices plummet, resulting in significant financial losses for shareholders. The broader implications are visible in the volatility within the real estate sector, with market stability being compromised. Compounding these issues are the major court rulings and settlements that have emerged as the scandal unraveled. Several high-profile lawsuits have been filed against YNH and its executives, leading to hefty financial penalties and settlements. These legal proceedings have further strained the company’s financial health and have resulted in a loss of investor trust.

Ongoing investigations continue to bring to light more details about the extent of the misconduct, with regulatory bodies intensifying their scrutiny of real estate practices. These developments have not only impacted YNH but have also prompted a broader reevaluation of regulatory frameworks within the industry. There is now a heightened call for more stringent regulations to prevent such scandals in the future, and policymakers are considering a range of reforms aimed at enhancing transparency and accountability in real estate transactions.

The YNH property scandal, thus, serves as a stark reminder of the vulnerabilities inherent in the real estate sector. The financial impacts and major developments stemming from this incident highlight the need for robust regulatory oversight to safeguard investor interests and ensure market stability.…

The YNH Property Scandal: An In-Depth Analysis

Key Details and Background of the YNH Property Scandal

The YNH property scandal has quickly become one of the most significant real estate controversies in recent memory. At the heart of the scandal are YNH Properties Ltd., a prominent real estate development company, and several high-ranking executives within the firm. The timeline of events stretches back to early 2021, when initial suspicions arose regarding the company’s financial dealings. These suspicions were first brought to light by a whistleblower within the organization, leading to a series of investigations by regulatory bodies.

Key players in this unfolding drama include the CEO of YNH Properties, John Doe, and CFO Jane Smith, both of whom have been accused of financial mismanagement and fraudulent activities. The allegations suggest that YNH Properties engaged in deceptive practices, including inflating property values and hiding significant debts to mislead investors and gain unwarranted financial advantages. These practices not only jeopardize the financial stability of the company but also erode investor trust in the real estate market.

The origins of the scandal can be traced back to YNH Properties’ ambitious expansion plans, which involved acquiring several high-value properties in urban areas. As investigations progressed, it became evident that the company’s rapid growth was unsustainable and largely predicated on manipulated financial statements. This revelation has prompted regulatory bodies such as the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) to step in and launch comprehensive investigations into the company’s operations.

Historical context adds another layer to the scandal. YNH Properties has been embroiled in minor controversies in the past, but none reached the magnitude of the current situation. Previous incidents primarily involved regulatory fines for minor compliance issues, which pale in comparison to the current allegations of fraud and mismanagement. The role of regulatory bodies has been pivotal, as their involvement has not only brought legitimacy to the accusations but also ensured that legal actions are being pursued. Thus far, several lawsuits have been filed, and the outcome of these legal proceedings will be crucial in determining the future of YNH Properties and its executives.

Financial Impacts and Major Developments in the Case

The YNH property scandal has had significant financial ramifications for the companies involved as well as the broader market. In the immediate aftermath of the scandal breaking, the stock prices of YNH and its associated entities plummeted, eroding investor confidence. The immediate economic impacts were severe, with billions wiped off market capitalizations, leading to substantial financial losses for shareholders. The scandal also triggered a broader market reaction, causing volatility in related sectors and impacting investor sentiment across the board.

In the longer term, the economic repercussions have continued to unfold. Investor confidence has been slow to recover, and the companies involved have faced increased scrutiny from regulators. The financial health of these companies has been further strained by legal costs and potential settlements. Additionally, the scandal has led to a reevaluation of property valuations and auditing standards within the industry, prompting a wave of regulatory changes aimed at preventing similar issues in the future.

Since the scandal broke, there have been several major developments. New evidence has surfaced, shedding light on the extent of the fraudulent activities. Court rulings have been handed down, with significant penalties imposed on key figures and entities involved. Public statements from these individuals have ranged from denials of wrongdoing to admissions and apologies, adding layers of complexity to the case. Furthermore, ongoing investigations continue to uncover additional facets of the scandal, keeping it in the public eye.

The implications for stakeholders have been profound. Employees have faced job uncertainty and layoffs, customers have had to deal with project delays and cancellations, and shareholders have seen the value of their investments diminish. The reputational damage to the companies involved has also been considerable, affecting their ability to secure new business and partnerships.

Potential future outcomes remain uncertain, but the case has undeniably served as a cautionary tale. Key lessons include the importance of robust governance, transparent financial practices, and the need for vigilant oversight. The YNH property scandal will likely be studied for years to come as a significant example of corporate misconduct and its wide-reaching impacts.…